Indian Railways is the life-line of nation providing transportation facility over the length and breadth of country. It’s vision is to provide efficient, affordable, customer-focused, environmentally sustainable integrated transportation solutions and to be the vehicle of inclusive growth, connecting regions, communities, ports and centers of industry, commerce, tourism and pilgrimage across the country.
Civil Engineering infrastructure is the largest static infrastructure of Indian Railways comprising of track, bridges, land, etc. Management of this huge infrastructure has to be done in accordance with the organization’s vision. Civil engineering department of Indian Railways manages and maintains all these infrastructures. Further, it has key role in the area of infrastructure development, technological leap in various fields, high speed travel and development of world class stations.
Track and Bridges
As on 31.03.2020, the route length of Indian Railways covered 67,956 kms with running track length of 99,235 kms. The total trackage including yards, sidings etc. stood at 1,26,366 kms. The table below shows the changing size of IR's electrified rail network over the years.
|As on 31.3.2020, the Indian Railways had||(in Kms.)|
|1. Route length||67,956|
|2. Running Track length||99,235|
|3. Total Trackage||1,26,366|
|The following works were carried out during 2019-20|
|1. Track renewal||4,500|
|2. Construction of New Line||359.71|
|3. Gauge conversion from MG/NG to BG||408.50|
|4. Track conversion from single to double line||1,458.22|
Indian Railways (IR) is one of the world’s largest rail networks with 67,956 Route Kilometres of route lengths as on 31.03.2020. Out of 67,956 RKMs, BG constitutes 63,949 RKMs (94.10%), MG 2,402 RKMs (3.54%) and NG 1,809 RKMs (2.36%). The growth of its Route length, Running and Track Kms since independence is as follows :-
|Year||Route kms.||Running Track kms.||Total Track kms.|
State-wise Route Kms/ Running Kms./ Total Track Kms.:
Following table shows Route Kms., Running Track Kms. & Total Track Kms. of railway lines across various States/Union Territories at the end of 2019-20.
|State/Union Territory||Route kms.||Running Track kms.||Total Track kms.|
|Jammu & Kashmir||298||366||493|
Broad gauge, though forming 94% of the route, generated 100% of the freight output (NTKms) and 99.9% of the passenger output (Pkms).
Route length as on 31.03.2020 on each gauge, indicating double/multiple line, single line and electrified route, is given below:
|Gauge||Single line||Double/multiple line||Grand Total|
|Electrified||Non electrified||Total||Electrified||Non electrified||Total|
|Broad (1676 mm)||16,036.12||22,878.79||38,914.91||23,292.76||1,741.59||25,034.35||63,949.26|
|Metre (1000 mm)||-||2,402.25||2,402.25||-||-||-||2,402.25|
|Narrow (762 mm/610 mm)||-||1,604.12||1,604.12||-||-||-||1,604.12|
|%age to total RKMs||-||-||63.16||-||-||36.84||-|
Almost, all Double/Multiple Track sections and Electrified Routes are Broad Gauge. Metre and Narrow Gauges are mostly single line and nonelectrified. Between 1950-51 and 2019-20, traffic density (million GTKms. per running track km.) increased from 4.29 to 21.54 on BG.
As on 01.04.2020, IR has 1,50,390 Bridges out of which 702 are important, 12,256 are major and 1,37,432 are minor Bridges. During the year 2019-20, 1,367 Bridges are Strengthened/Rehabilitated/Rebuilt to enhance safety of train operation.
Road Over/Under Bridges:
To improve safety of train operation and reduce inconvenience to road users, level crossings are being replaced by Road Over/Under Bridges/Subways (ROBs/RUBs) in a phased manner based on the quantum of traffic.
During the year 2019-20, 145 ROBs and 1,170 RUBs/Subways have been constructed under cost sharing, railway cost/accommodation works, Deposit/BOT term and by NHAI over Indian Railway.
Level crossings (LCs) are meant to facilitate the smooth running of traffic in regulated manner governed by specific rules & conditions. Status of level crossings on IR as on 01.04.2020 is as under:
|Total number of level crossings||21,323|
|Number of manned level crossings||20,375||(95.6%)|
|Number of unmanned level crossings||948||(4.4%)|
Indian Railway has decided to progressively eliminate the level crossings for the safety of Road users and train passengers. During the year 2019-20, 1,273 Nos. of manned level crossings have been eliminated. All unmanned Level Crossings on Broad Gauge have already been eliminated.
As on 31.03.2020 Indian Railways (IR) owns about 4.81 lakh hectares of land. About 90% of this land is under Railways’ operational and allied usages such as laying of new lines, doubling, gauge conversions, track, stations, workshops, staff colonies etc. The break-up of the land is as under:-
(in lakh hectares)
|Tracks and structures including Stations, colonies, etc.||3.67|
|'Grow More Food' scheme||0.03|
|Other uses like pisiculture||0.12|